Authenticating via OAuth¶
PRAW supports the three types of applications that can be registered on Reddit. Those are:
Before you can use any one of these with PRAW, you must first register an application of the appropriate type on Reddit.
If your app does not require a user context, it is read-only.
PRAW supports the flows that each of these applications can use. The following table defines which tables can use which flows:
|Alternative Flows||Code||Application-Only (Client Credentials)||Implicit|
|Application-Only (Client Credentials)|
|Application-Only (Installed Client)|
Password Flow is the simplest type of authentication flow to work with
because no callback process is involved in obtaining an
While password flow applications do not involve a redirect URI, Reddit
still requires that you provide one when registering your script application –
http://localhost:8080 is a simple one to use.
In order to use a password flow application with PRAW you need four pieces of information:
|client_id:||The client ID is the 14-character string listed just under “personal use script” for the desired developed application|
|client_secret:||The client secret is the 27-character string listed adjacent to
|password:||The password for the Reddit account used to register the application.|
|username:||The username of the Reddit account used to register the application.|
With this information authorizing as
username using a password flow app
is as simple as:
reddit = praw.Reddit(client_id='SI8pN3DSbt0zor', client_secret='xaxkj7HNh8kwg8e5t4m6KvSrbTI', password='1guiwevlfo00esyy', user_agent='testscript by /u/fakebot3', username='fakebot3')
To verify that you are authenticated as the correct user run:
The output should contain the same name as you entered for
If the following exception is raised, double-check your credentials, and ensure that that the username and password you are using are for the same user with which the application is associated:
OAuthException: invalid_grant error processing request
A 2FA token can be used by joining it to the password with a colon:
reddit = praw.Reddit(client_id='SI8pN3DSbt0zor', client_secret='xaxkj7HNh8kwg8e5t4m6KvSrbTI', password='1guiwevlfo00esyy:955413', user_agent='testscript by /u/fakebot3', username='fakebot3')
However, for such an app there is little benefit to using 2FA. The token must be refreshed after one hour; therefore, the 2FA secret would have to be stored along with the rest of the credentials in order to generate the token, which defeats the point of having an extra credential beyond the password.
If you do choose to use 2FA, you must handle the
that will be raised by API calls after one hour.
A code flow application is useful for two primary purposes:
- You have an application and want to be able to access Reddit from your users’ accounts.
- You have a personal-use script application and you either want to * limit the access one of your PRAW-based programs has to Reddit * avoid the hassle of 2FA (described above) * not pass your username and password to PRAW (and thus not keep it in memory)
When registering your application you must provide a valid redirect URI. If you are running a website you will want to enter the appropriate callback URL and configure that endpoint to complete the code flow.
If you aren’t actually running a website, you can use the Obtaining a Refresh Token
script to obtain
http://localhost:8080 as the
redirect URI when using this script.
Whether or not you use the script there are two processes involved in obtaining access or refresh tokens.
print(reddit.auth.url(['identity'], '...', implicit=True)
All application types support a read-only mode. Read-only mode provides access
to Reddit like a logged out user would see including the default Subreddits in
In the absence of a
refresh_token both Code Flow and
Implicit Flow applications start in the read-only mode. With such
applications read-only mode is disabled when
implicit() are successfully called. Password Flow applications
start up with read-only mode disabled.
Read-only mode can be toggled via:
# Enable read-only mode reddit.read_only = True # Disable read-only mode (must have a valid authorization) reddit.read_only = False
The following flows are the read-only mode flows for Reddit applications
Application-Only (Client Credentials)¶
This is the default flow for read-only mode in script and web applications. The idea behind this is that Reddit can trust these applications as coming from a given developer, however the application requires no logged-in user context.
An installed application cannot use this flow, because Reddit requires a
client_secret to be given it this flow is being used. In other words,
installed applications are not considered confidential clients.
Application-Only (Installed Client)¶
This is the default flow for read-only mode in installed applications.
The idea behind this is that Reddit might not be able to trust these
applications as coming from a given developer. This would be able to happen if
someone other than the developer can potentially replicate the client information
and then pretend to be the application, such as in installed applications where
the end user could retrieve the
No benefit is really gained from this in script or web apps. The one exception is for when a script or web app has multiple end users, this will allow you to give Reddit the information needed in order to distinguish different users of your app from each other (as the supplied device id should be a unique string per both device (in the case of a web app, server) and user (in the case of a web app, browser session).
Using a Saved Refresh Token¶
A saved refresh token can be used to immediately obtain an authorized instance
reddit = praw.Reddit(client_id='SI8pN3DSbt0zor', client_secret='xaxkj7HNh8kwg8e5t4m6KvSrbTI', refresh_token='WeheY7PwgeCZj4S3QgUcLhKE5S2s4eAYdxM', user_agent='testscript by u/fakebot3') print(reddit.auth.scopes())
The output from the above code displays which scopes are available on the
redirect_uri does not need to be provided in such
cases. It is only needed when
url() is used.